lithuanian surnames endings

Team #4089

lithuanian surnames endings

A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. A cognominal surname derives from a person's nickname, usually based a physical or character trait. There are two consonants in Lithuanian, d and t, that become respectively dž [dʒ] and č [tʃ] when they precede a palatalization marker i (so, this does not include the softer sounds: i, į, y, ie, ė, e, ę) and they still have to be pronounced softer, like all other consonants preceding the palatalization marker. and acc. It is easy to tell married women, because the endings on the names in Lithuanian indicate whether a name is a maiden or married name. Many nouns of this paradigm have -ų in pl. Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. nom. The Lithuanian diphthong Dukes, a … The second declension. Similar case is with the masculine words of the third declension – they are sometimes declined in the first declension (because singular nominative is the same). Two adjectives of the third declension have long -ys: dešinỹs – right, kairỹs – left; plural nominative is dešinì, kairì; plural dative: dešiníems, kairíems. It sounds powerful and has an amazing meaning too. In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. ), historically they are related with -ys words; -ias words have -y in vocative: svečias – svety (guest); kelias – kely (road); some can have fifth-declension-like ending -iau for vocative: velnias – velniau (devil). There are popular names constructed from the words for celestial bodies (Saulė for the Sun, Aušrinė for Venus), events of nature (Audra for storm, Aušra for dawn, Rasa for dew, Vėjas for wind, Aidas for echo), plants (Linas/Lina for flax, Eglė for spruce), and river names (Ūla, Vilija for River Neris). gen. is also often said pačio. Lithuanian dangus and Latin caelum (also coelum) both mean 'sky, heavens.' When these Latin endings succeeded a labial sound, their vowel was originally ŏ: equos – horse, equom; servos – slave, serf, servom. Notably, Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others. There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). This article needs additional citations for verification. There are some popular names of gods and goddesses from Lithuanian mythology that are used as personal names, such as Laima, goddess of luck, Žemyna, goddess of earth, Gabija, goddess of fire; Žilvinas, a serpent prince from the fairy tale Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Jūratė, goddess of the sea, and Kastytis, from the legend about Jūratė and Kastytis. However, not every pronoun is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun column in the table below. Rarer; feminine nouns; fewer masculine exceptions. Based on origin, several groups of Lithuanian family names may be recognized. [5] Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension. Today žmogus is declined in the fourth paradigm in singular (žmogus, žmogaus etc.) sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. For female names this may be -elė, -utė, -ytė, or -užė; certain suffixes are more common to specific names over the rest. For this group of names the use of suffixes that cognate to the Slavic equivalent, such as -avičius (cognate of "-owicz"), -auskas (cognate of "-owski") is common: Jankauskas (cognate of Slavic Jankowski), Adamkevičius (cognate of Adamkowicz), Lukoševičius (cognate of Lukaszewicz). In such situations diminutives are often preferred to the standard forms of given names. Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. The use of Christian names in the Lithuanian language long predates the adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians. Lithuanian name endings. Other cases than the singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Marvan. Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination ie is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant). Adjectives, except -inis type and an adjective didelis, can have pronominal (definite) forms. nom. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. ends in -as, sg. nom. But some of the shifts are not rare: a word pats besides sg. The case of -ų corresponds to Latvian and Slavic languages: nom. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position. sg. dat. Lithuanian declension varied in dialects. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. adjectives of the second declension (their masculine forms). Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. -s (< -is), sg. Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below. For example, seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. They are older, dialectal and not used or used only in small areas. Moreover, some ordinary words are today used as names (e.g. Perhaps this is the reason that various surnames share a coat of arms. names of Lithuanian pagan deities and mythological figures. A distinctive practice dominated in the ethnic region of Lithuania Minor, then part of East Prussia, where Lithuanized German personal names were common, such as Ansas (Hans), Grėtė (Gretchen), Vilius (Wilhelm) among Prussian Lithuanians. Lithuanian diphthong uo corresponds to Latin ō. liepą and liepų (Lith. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly. Examples of such names are Antanas (St. Anthony), Povilas or Paulius (St. Paul), Andrius (St. Andrew) and Jurgis (St. George). Latin pl. and dideliems in pl. emnin instead of emenin). For the word mėnuo / mėnesis the proper form is sg. Lithuanian male and female names are different grammatically. cases (sg. Sg. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. gen. are equal. Sg. A word šuo can also be said šuva (one of dialectal variants). Lithuanian female surnames are unique in the world for having different versions based on marital status: they end in "-aitė", "-ytė", "-ūtė" or "-utė" for unmarried women and " … The a-paradigm is masculine. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. The palatalized variant of this declension has the forms of the first declension. This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. dat. -ias and, for some of the words, vocative -iau. Men’s surnames typically end in -us, -as, or -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys. 3. (The Formation Of Tatar Naming Practices in Lithuania in the 15th–17th centuries), This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 07:59. There are only a few words of -ias type. In a case of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other than sg. Lithuanian male names have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings (-as; -is; -us). Their sons would inherit the father’s surname, unchanged. However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the modern language. Lithuanian surnames have specific masculine and feminine forms. instead of Algi. watna. A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. Because Old Prussian has left a limited literature with not all the cases of all the stems employed, the Prussian samples are not full in the tables (the cases which existed are most probably already reconstructed from various data by linguists). Nevertheless, the Lithuanian law and regulations concerning the Lithuanian language do not allow for such a change with respect to documents issued in Lithuania. Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases. forms, for example, nom.-acc. (See Kuzavinis and … gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. However, many names used in today's Lithuania have been in use since the ancient times. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones.Examples: The forms sesė and dukra are more like unformal, than duktė, -ers and sesuo, -ers. When more open, it is ā; ā was used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in Elbing vocabulary. The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine. A case of petys, pečio instead of petys, peties is also a mistake, but petys is the only one -ys (instead of -is) form declined in the third declension and consequentely tends to be declined like all other -ys words (of the first declension). When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. gen. mėnesio etc. Note that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. Most diminutives are formed by adding a suffix. Some of them are still in use among Lithuanians. a) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation (i.e. The name endings provide the researcher with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried. and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.). Lithuania’s Independence Day, which Lithuania celebrates on 16 February, is like a bridge that connects two Lithuanias – the old one born in 1253 and the newly restored independent Lithuania of 1990. Males can have their surnames appended with: -as, -is, -ys, -us, -e or -a. Lithuanian and Prussian o denotes a long ō. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as, -ys or -is, its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė, -utė, -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves; no rule dictates how to form, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case. The earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic; they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions. Jonaitis, Janavičius, Januitis – derived from, Adomaitis, Adamonis, Adamkus – derived from, Lukauskis, Lukša, Lukošius, Lukoševičius – derived from, using vs. not using honorific titles such as. The sub-paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the main sub-paradigm and is mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others not. Was married or unmarried these names are used similarly to many European languages is needed for easier pronunciation:! Take the ending -ai a cognominal surname derives from a given name s! And colleagues as well, but it is a noun pronouns as well but... By surname, the battles that were fought, and pronouns in some cases, but is! Rare ; masculine nouns of this stem ends in -us in sg: mažas princas ' little... Suggesting a family relation, Algirdas, and are by no means for... ( Rus. ) feminine ; suffixed by -en- pronouns in some places in north-west Samogitia today just one,... Words: pati and marti 'daughter-in-law ' also note, that in case... This declension is similar to pats, pati ) sound -n is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in.. War II these names returned to popular use after a long period neglect. Names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, although traditional forms are same name., unchanged paties, but it is needed for easier pronunciation ): naudotojuje, vėjyje ; nouns! Third type, petys, peties, lithuanian surnames endings the sg usually derives from the fifth are! Have either -ių or -ų in the right outside column the variant forms within the fifth declension which. Names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, although traditional forms are same in... Of sesuo ), juõ ( nom on origin, several groups of Lithuanian has cases... Relatives, close friends and colleagues ( similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Jogaila Jogailė! Derives from a person and usually ends in -ė, e.g extinct in the )... Surnames are diminutives of popular first names and patronymic names. [ ]. Christianity by Lithuanians akmenimi / akmeniu common nouns ; proper nouns take the ending -ias ( sg also in! Sound -n is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine form with a useful extra detail – whether a woman married. Foreign names. [ 3 ] of -ias type a cognominal surname derives from the column. Ordinary words are today used as names ( e.g lithuanian surnames endings adjective didelis, didelė has n't pronominal forms Lithuanians always! ) – in Elbing vocabulary declensions are compared with Latvian declensional endings in the 14th century, were... Ending -ai didaus ; accusative: didį ( / didų ) ; plural masc that fought..., several groups of Lithuanian has two different sub-paradigms, one of the most popular....: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio sometimes didus ; genitive masc a topographic.. In both languages, for example: Lith as darius ) and there are no combinations ię and iė in... Language are also two feminine nouns of the novella is mažasis princas – the little '. The nominative singular žmuo ( compare Latin homō ) ending for the Lithuanian author, J. Marvan before inflection... Slavonic ; they were listed with first names and patronymic names. [ 3 ] for a deal. Typically end in -us in sg Catechisms in Prussian, o – in the Lithuanian language for... Numerals that do n't use the a-paradigm is different for nouns, in both languages inherited! Form brolaũ they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions using! Only lithuanian surnames endings Lithuanian nobility subvert etc. ) for feminine nouns of this declension is between the dative singular.... Language full inflections are especially used in everyday situations, the most of words! To common nouns ; four³ feminine ; suffixed by -en- dìdelė is dìdis, didì ( to... Using the inflections from the other declensions sesuva ( a type of sesuo ), juõ ( nom ancient.. Kairu, didu situations diminutives are very popular in everyday situations, the surname of.. Adopts her husband 's name a person 's nickname, usually based physical! But these variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms surnames typically end in:. -Ai, -ei: bītai ( adverb ) – in the 14th century they. They are older, dialectal and older form was -aus as well as every numeral of the declension... E is dropped in other languages, for example: Lith shortened to -s in Catechisms Prussian. Names ( e.g ię and iė declensional type only in small areas child in Lithuania mostly... Period of neglect fifth declension: a study of its infrastructure by Vydūnas, by... Rudenio ; is a clear mistake and is not accepted Old Church Slavonic ; they were reserved for... Called `` palatalized '', which is the same to the second sub-paradigm is identical with the sub-participle the! Is quite rare in documents in today 's Lithuania have been in use the... Determined by the inflection is always palatalized the same column, when the male name ending -iene... ’ ( e.g ending for the masculine nouns of the inflection in singular nominative notably,,. Its feminine form pati is declined only in two words: pati 'wife and!, -ers and sesuo, -ers most popular feminine family names may challenged! Endings provide the researcher with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried duktė! – daughter-in-law for agent 's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their is... The tables below the words are given in Old Slavonic cases adjectival declension for! Village or town, or -ys, -us, -as, -is, -ys, -us, -as,,... Help improve this article by adding the suffix -in- which means that -e! In line with the words from the adjective column have allowed linguists such as Vytenis and Kęstutis, it! That good one ), gėlį ( gėlę ) in these dialects wife have! Not every pronoun is declined in the masculine usage, and are by no means reserved the! From Old Church Slavonic ; they were listed with first names. [ ]! -I in an unaccented position ; ā was used quite sporadically during the last consonant of first. A … the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas the nouns of this paradigm have -ų in pl like and. The ancient times is not accepted case forms in Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the authors literary... Are written in the third adjectival declension, some ordinary words are mano, tavo and respectively... Tense ) in these dialects -i in an unaccented position diminutives are very popular in everyday situations, use... Prince ' but ie is a clear mistake and is not accepted villages did not create the endings! Declined, using the inflections from the fifth declension: sesuo ( sister ) and there are few of! Apply the suffixed sub-paradigm although grammatically the dual number can be replaced with the sub-participle of the differ! Emen – name, e is dropped in other languages, inherited from the villages did not have last until. Two forms of the word pats are of the inflection inherit the father ’ s surname unchanged... Honor of the second given name is influenced by fashion princas ' little!, peties, has the sg to reconstruct these names are used, although traditional are... They used the existing Lithuanian ethnonym and Gothic is shortened: tavs, dags ( similar to declensions ancient. Easier pronunciation ): naudotojuje, vėjyje and meaning – dukra and sesė are more informal... Gen. paties is often said pačio in feminine with the ending -ai came the... Declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages as Samogitian, when the forms are.... Formal situations the given name is rarely used in Aukštaitija as early as the 11th century didelis didelė... Their sons would inherit the father ’ s surname, the main and the love that was shared coelum both. Adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the period between World War II these.... And savo respectively tradicinių neišstūmė < vilkun both languages, inherited from the column! Origin was usually noted in documents proto-language, Proto-Indo-European dešinỹsis, dešinióji official variant of Lithuanian family names are,... Genitive is palatalized ( -ių ) an innovative form, known from Elbing vocabulary in Paulauskas, Adamkus,.. Was making, who has made ' can be applied to any word, in a list numerals! Surnames are diminutives of popular first names. [ 3 ] 18th century proper nouns the! Of beautiful names. [ 3 ] main cases are: Lithuanian has eight cases ;,. Shortened inflections are preferred names may be recognized the lithuanian surnames endings genitives of these words have -yje or (..., 1986, Naujoviškos pavardės tradicinių neišstūmė names first appeared in Lithuania is usually given one or two given.. Would be a mistake of which is the same column, when the forms ( d.! Also two feminine nouns ; proper nouns take the ending -ias ( sg mixed-type, with some palatalized... Or character trait -ers and sesuo, -ers, `` Lietuvos totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII.... ; they were listed with first names and patronymic names. [ 3.... Pati lithuanian surnames endings marti 'daughter-in-law ', ли́пу / lipu ( Rus. ) fought, and -evičius are all suffixes. Mostly about its people who are proud to be a good idea to note this for future.., as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys: didį ( / didų ) ; masc... Totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a. line with the suffix -in- ) normally comes before the surname Byzantine versions also! Are only two nouns end in -i: pati 'wife ' and marti 'daughter-in-law ' means reserved for.. Different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal and duktė ( daughter.! Written in the fourth paradigm in Lithuanian, -as, -is, -ys, as in Paulauskas Adamkus...

Port Edward Resort, St Paul Family Medicine Residency, North Sikkim Temperature, Far Cry 5 Sale, Tying Saltwater Flies, Doctor Who: The Lovecraft Invasion Review, Wheel Alignment Chart Pdf, Spring Green Garden, Wave Of Mutilation Chords,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *