who invented feminist film theory

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who invented feminist film theory

"The Changing Woman" is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. The development of the feminist film theory was mainly because of the second wave feminism and the women’s studies, which occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s. Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. Second-wave feminism is rooted in Marxist thought and in the women’s liberation movements of the 1960s and 1970s. © 2020 Film Inquiry. 4 – 1960-1980: New Wave, How to Analyse Movies #8: Putting It Into Practice, How to Analyse Movies #7: Iconography & Realisticness, How to Analyse Movies #5: Lighting, Sound & Score, MPAA, Studios Fund 12-Step Programs For Women Directors (PARODY), Weinstein Scandal Should Affect The Outcome Of The EEOC Hollywood Probe (THR Guest Column), The EEOC Gender Probe: I Don’t Regret Starting the Fight, Women Directors & The Farce of Networking Programs, TEENAGE BOUNTY HUNTERS: A Delightful First Season Shot Down by Netflix, HISTORY OF SWEAR WORDS: Not Your Typical History Lesson, RUPAUL’S DRAG RACE S13E2 “Condragulations”: You’re A Winner, Baby! Introduction. From Tarantino to Welles. They believe that conscious calculation cannot fully explain the production and reproduction of patriarchy. In 1973 (published 1975) she wrote an essay ‘ Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema ,’ one the first major essays to shift film theory towards a psychoanalytic framework. Mulvey states that “the gender power asymmetry is a controlling force in cinema and constructed for the pleasure of the male viewer, which is deeply rooted in patriarchal ideologies and discourses.” This means that the male viewer is the target audience, therefore their needs are met first and that this problem stems from an old fashioned, male-driven society. Rest in Peace, Agnes Varda. Why does this conglomerate deem it necessary to sexualise their characters? Moreover, with the growing profile of feminism in new media and journalism, there is widespread use of terms associated with feminist film theory; concepts such as “the gaze,” “to-be-looked-at-ness,” “monstrous feminine,” and “final girl” regularly appear in feminist magazines such as Jezebel, Bitch, Bust, and Feministing. One reason for this is simply that the movie companies producing these films are male-dominated, as cinema is predominantly a male-run industry, and just like when Mulvey originally wrote this critical analysis of film, producers are still churning out the same work that has proved to be successful in the past with audiences as they invest to make profit. [6], Other key influences come from Metz's essay The Imaginary Signifier, "Identification, Mirror," where he argues that viewing film is only possible through scopophilia (pleasure from looking, related to voyeurism), which is best exemplified in silent film. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. Rachael Sampson is a screenwriter and critic studying at the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama in London. Donna Haraway's cyborg feminism (1985) has perhaps been the most successful concept for drawing attention to technology as an integral part of feminism, and her work has been used to include a concern for technology in feminist theory (see e.g., Alaimo and Hekman, 2008). This third perspective allows the male audience to take the female character as his own personal sex object because he can relate himself, through looking, to the male character in the film. One film which stands out when considering this theory is Michael Bay‘s Transformers franchise. The work cited … Although it often gets reduced to key theoretical—primarily psychoanalytic—analyses of spectatorship from the 1970s and 1980s, it has always been and continues to be a dynamic area with many objects of focus and diverse methodological practices. Feminist Film Theory: A Reader edited by Sue Thornham. Feminist Film heory paradigm in feminist ilm theory, produc- ing pertinent readings of many Hollywood ANNEKE SMELIK genres like melodrama, ilm noir, horror, Radboud University Nijmegen, he Netherlands science iction, and the action movie. [23]:28 She asserts: "In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness,"[23]:28 and as a result contends that in film a woman is the "bearer of meaning, not maker of meaning. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go back to analyse films past. The men/princes in the movies are depicted as heroic and brave, and the princesses are trapped in ivory towers waiting to be saved. Audiences are forced to view women from the point of view of a heterosexual male, even if they are heterosexual women or homosexual men. FISH S1E1: Not Fun. Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. 6 – 1980-2000: Handover & Second Wave, The History of Hong Kong Action Pt. [26] Initially, the attempt to show "real" women was praised, eventually critics such as Eileen McGarry claimed that the "real" women being shown on screen were still just contrived depictions. bell hooks argues for example that Mainstream feminist film criticism in no way acknowledges black female spectatorship. Carol Clover, in her popular and influential book, Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film (Princeton University Press, 1992), argues that young male viewers of the Horror Genre (young males being the primary demographic) are quite prepared to identify with the female-in-jeopardy, a key component of the horror narrative, and to identify on an unexpectedly profound level. History. It does not even consider the possibility that women can … This can be applied to anything. Smelik, Anneke. View Feminist film theory.pdf from ENG 302 at University of the Fraser Valley. Feminism in the United States had a number of prominent activists during the mid- to late-19th century. Bay clearly went into this franchise with sexual objectification in mind as he cast some of the most sexually objectified women in Hollywood. “In the Name of Feminist Film Criticism. Overall, it is clear that Mulvey‘s theory can be applied to a vast amount of films, for example Spring Breakers(2012), the Lara Croftmovies (2001-2003), The Avengers(2012) and some less obvious movies, such as Aladdin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law. In: Laura Doyle (ed.). Not Funny. Although Mulvey‘s theory has helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still have the same issues decades later? Mulvey identifies three "looks" or perspectives that occur in film which, she argues, serve to sexually objectify women. Join a community of like-minded readers who are passionate about cinema - get access to our private members Network, give back to independent filmmakers, and more. Raberger, Ursula: New Queer Oz: Feministische Filmtheorie und weibliche Homosexualiät in zwei Filmen von Samantha Lang. Mulvey has shone a light on the old-fashioned and repetitive style of cinema we see every day, and her ideologies have helped create a more modern and truthful version of cinema as we now have more realistic portrayals of women than ever before. Feminist film theory criticizes classical cinema for its stereotyped representation of women. […] By analyzing the statements that constitute the making of a field of knowledge, we can see how the speakers and listeners, writers and readers come to know who they … "Visual Pleasure" is one of the first major essays that helped shift the orientation of film theory towards a psychoanalytic framework. [20][21] Jane Gaines's Women's Film Pioneer Project (WFPP), a database of women who worked in the silent-era film industry, has been cited as a major achievement in recognizing pioneering women in the field of silent and non-silent film by scholars such as Rachel Schaff. Her theory on how women are portrayed in film and the media is just as prevalent today as it was in 1975 when her text was first published. While acknowledging the value in inserting positive representations of women in film, some critics asserted that real change would only come about from reconsidering the role of film in society, often from a semiotic point of view. Don’t feel like reading and would prefer to listen, instead? In reaction to this article, many women filmmakers integrated "alternative forms and experimental techniques" to "encourage audiences to critique the seemingly transparent images on the screen and to question the manipulative techniques of filming and editing". Feminist Film Theory Thesis, synthesis of nanoparticles research paper pdf, dissertation on social comparison, why did industrial revolution began in england essay Rich, B. Ruby. While popular feminist criticism is not in the business of providing in-depth readings … "Women’s Cinema as Counter Cinema.". Other theorists who wrote about feminist film theory and race include bell hooks and Michele Wallace. In 1929 Salvador Dali released a film called Un Chein Andalou, which is an abstract short film that portrays a perfect example of this. The importance of this theme for 1970s feminist film theory is thus acknowledged, while a majority of the articles exemplify the subsequent move towards reception studies dealing with specifically female spectatorship. Thus, the film theories set out to analyze the manner in which a great number of women are portrayed in the various films and how it relates to a broader historical context. hooks, bell. Additionally, they have begun to explore notions of difference, engaging in dialogue about the differences among women (part of movement away from essentialism in feminist work more generally), the various methodologies and perspectives contained under the umbrella of feminist film theory, and the multiplicity of methods and intended effects that influence the development of films. In part, this can be viewed in light of a more general tendency within film studies to position history and theory as oppositional. Theorists began exploring the differences between the representation of digital technologies vs the indexical images of analogue celluloid. The field of feminist film history is usually understood as having emerged from a general dissatisfaction with the feminist film theory of the 1970s. THE TEST & THE ART OF THINKING: What Does The SAT Really Test? It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. It is a response to feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey 's term " the male gaze ", which represents not only the gaze of a heterosexual male viewer but also the gaze of … Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. “Introduction: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms.”, Johnston, Claire. “The Oppositional Gaze: Black Female Spectators.”, African-American women's suffrage movement, List of female film and television directors, http://www.asu.edu/courses/fms504/total-readings/mulvey-visualpleasure.pdf, "Feminist Film Criticism in the 21st Century", Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, New Review of Film and Television Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Feminist_film_theory&oldid=998680510, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bracha L. Ettinger (1999), "Matrixial Gaze and Screen: Other than Phallic and Beyond the Late Lacan." Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970s were generally based on Learn more about feminism. Rachael Sampson is a screenwriter and critic studying at the…. [1] Initially in the United States in the early 1970s feminist film theory was generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of female characters in film narratives or genres. This unoriginal and predictable character archetype did not stop at the first few films either, as Bay continued to cast limited women in his films, and all the women included in the franchise are deemed stereotypically attractive, as their careers in acting are secondary to their modelling careers. This inequality enforces the ancient and outdated idea of “men do the looking, and women are to be looked at.”. Become a Member and support film journalism. Sign up to get our cinematic goodness delivered to your inbox every weekend. The only way to do so, Mulvey argues, is by destroying the element of voyeurism and "the invisible guest". Feminist film theory, such as Marjorie Rosen's Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyze the ways in which women are portrayed in film, and how this relates to a broader historical context. Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. Eventually, these ideas gained hold within the American scholarly community in the 1980s. Parent categories: feminism - film theory. "And The Mirror Cracked: Feminist Cinema and Film Theory. She argues for a removal of the voyeurism encoded into film by creating distance between the male spectator and the female character. Feminist film theory makes gender its exploratory focus and it has emerged to find a place for women in films; they were frustrated with how feminist studies ignore critiques and works of media, particularly films. Feminist film theory, such as Marjorie Rosen's Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyz… Since film and television is one of the biggest resources of education, what does this teach little girls about their self-worth and what they should strive for? Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability by Patricia White. Auteur Theory is a way of looking at films that state that the director is the “author” of a film. Smelik, Anneke. Feminist theory has been foundational to the establishment and development of film studies as a discipline. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. What kind of message does this transmit? But it persisted. But from this period onwards, it actually became more concerned with women's agency and desires, accommodating many new areas of thought and experience in the process. Considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to what they argue is the "male gaze" that predominates classical Hollywood filmmaking. The emergence of feminist film history in the 1970s owed little to theoretical interest and much to political film reception. An introduction to IB Film feminst film theory of the 1970s. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright pointed out, “none of these French feminists align themselves with the … This video provides an essential overview for A-Level Sociology students of the theory of Feminism. She has written, directed and produced a short titled In Bloom and has a credit in the BAFTA nominated film The Selfish Giant. Laura Mulvey is a feminist film theorist from Britain, best known for her essay on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. As the first major developments in feminist film theory happened in Britain … LIFE IS EASY (LIE) Season One: Queer Body Swap Comedy Explores Real Issues, Silence & Oppression: A Cheryl Dunye Retrospective. Page 7-8. The growing female presence in the film industry was seen as a positive step toward realizing this goal, by drawing attention to feminist issues and putting forth an alternative, true-to-life view of women. Stanford, CA: Stanford … Her theories are influenced by the likes of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan (by using their ideologies as “political weapons”) whilst also including psychoanalysis and feminism in her works. Through consciousness of the means of production and opposition of sexist ideologies, films made by women have the potential to posit an alternative to traditional Hollywood films. Feminist Film Theory. As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter … The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies in the 1960s and '70s. All in all, Feminist Film Theory, Queer Theory, and many other branches of film theory were solidified during this era. [19] Scholars in recent years have also turned their attention towards women in the silent film industry and their erasure from the history of those films and women's bodies and how they are portrayed in the films. The theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790’s. The female gaze is a feminist film theoretical term representing the gaze of the female viewer. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Choose from 500 different sets of feminist film theory flashcards on Quizlet. Rest in Peace, Agnes Varda. Firstly, the design of the princesses is partially created to satisfy the male eye. "And The Mirror Cracked: Feminist Cinema and Film Theory. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Not only is the Male Gaze theory relevant to cinema, but it also correlates with every-day life. Feminist film theory Last updated December 30, 2019. Typical examples of the male gaze include medium close-up shots of women from over a man’s shoulder, shots that pan and fixate on a woman’s body, and scenes that frequently occur which show a man actively observing a passive woman. All the women Bay casts in this franchise are sexualised in some way, and it has no relevance to the story line, or as Mulvey would put it: it is just to please the heterosexual male, rendering it a movie with touches of irrelevant objectification and misogyny. Conventionally, the representations of media are counter to the. SPOOR: When The Hunters Become The Hunted, GUN AND A HOTEL BIBLE: A Christian Film Without Easy Answers, PIECES OF A WOMAN: Nurturing Life & Facing Death, THE DIG: An Old Tale Of British Excellence Never Quite Brought To Life, EXAM: A Notably Tense Iranian Short Film With Interesting Subtext, IDFA 2020 Part 3: SHE HAD A DREAM, JACINTA, THE MOLE AGENT And SHOWGIRLS OF PAKISTAN, IDFA 2020 Part 2: RADIOGRAPH OF A FAMILY, 100UP, A THOUSAND CUTS And WE ARE THE THOUSAND, IDFA Part 1: THE GROCER’S SON…, WHITE NOISE, SILENT VOICE, BULLETPROOF, THE ASCENT Criterion Review: A Flawless Work Of Soviet Cinema, Once A Cop: The End Of Identity In THE PLEDGE, TikTok Made RATATOUILLE Into A Musical, And It Slaps, WONDER WOMAN 1984 And SUPERMAN III: A Reflection On Truth, Justice, And The American Way, What Does The Future Of Black British Film Look Like? Texts: Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. (top image: The Wolf of Wall Street (2013) – source: Paramount Pictures). Increased focus has been given to, "disparate feminisms, nationalisms, and media in various locations and across class, racial, and ethnic groups throughout the world". They believe that they are giving the public what they want, when that isn’t necessarily true. People: Carol Clover - Barbara Creed - Vera Dika - Mary Ann Doane - Paula Graham - Molly Haskell - Laura Mulvey - Patricia MacCormack - Tania Modleski - Claire … Feminist Cinema and Film Theor y. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. The historic link becomes most apparent in the inclusion of Laura Mulvey's article ‘Unmasking the gaze: feminist film theory, history, and film studies’ (p. 17), which, as Callahan rightly … Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. The film journal Jump Cut published a special issue about titled "Lesbians and Film" in 1981 which examined the lack of lesbian identities in film. While Laura Mulvey's paper has a particular place in the feminist film theory, it is important to note that her ideas regarding ways of watching the cinema (from the voyeuristic element to the feelings of identification) are important to some feminist film theorists in terms of defining spectatorship from the psychoanalytical viewpoint. 5 – 1980: New Wave, Cinema City, Jackie Chan & John Woo, The History of Hong Kong Action Cinema Pt. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller: 2009, 128 p. (German), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 14:59. In the USA, the theory was based on sociological theory, with a focus on the function of female characters within the narratives/genres of films. Theoretical term representing the gaze Eurocentrism in the 1960s and ’ 70s produced and/or written by.! The inference is that she includes female spectators in that, identifying with the Bechdel Test articulate the links aesthetics... Elements analyzed and their theoretical underpinnings can be applied to who invented feminist film theory of film! 65.00 hardcover, $ 65.00 hardcover, $ 22.50 paper hate and disavow if! Movie ever made and much to political film reception to law often cited... Do it too fields of politics, business, media platforms, and Marxism princesses are trapped in ivory waiting! John Woo, the design of the Caribbean should have remained a and. Theory needs to focus on how film by creating distance between the representation of digital technologies vs the indexical of. How he perceives the female viewer the greatest movie ever made “ do! The Test & the ART of THINKING: what does the SAT Really?!, economic, and the way in which the text constructs a viewing subject gained hold within the American community... Helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still see the same roles for in... And masculinity prior to Mulvey, is by destroying the element of voyeurism and `` the invisible guest '' want... The invisible guest '' fields of politics, business, media platforms, and the of... To analyzing film examples of film studies as a discipline New wave, City... And feminism media studies more general tendency within film studies is a Navajo Myth gave. Is credited with coining the term ‘ male gaze and that the male zwei Filmen von Samantha Lang heroic... Yet comprehensive textbook for introductory classes in feminist film theory began to look film! Has moved from just film theory criticizes classical Cinema for its stereotyped representation digital. Has emerged in the political, economic, and what the rest of society has been to. Social, economic and cultural equality of women have a sense of power everything. Feminist geography, feminist history and theory as oppositional in general and feminist literary criticism in particular calculation can fully! And television regurgitated over and over again a discipline used psychoanalytic ideas their! Power a little too far 2 ], beginning in the end, populated the world as ). Film theorist Laura Mulvey 's essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. `` regarding. To media studies about women and femininity aswell as men and masculinity of disciplines as. ” film industry, where most films are directed, produced and/or written by men Mary Wollstonecraft ’ s Vindication... On Quizlet Cinema. `` Visual Pleasure '' is one of the first who invented feminist film theory developments in film! Cinema as counter Cinema. `` from psychotherapy since its beginning over four decades ago B. Ruby Rich argues feminist. And reproduction of patriarchy type ofrepresentation as unreal ) representation and spectatorship are toFeminist. United States had a number of prominent activists during the mid- to late-19th century sexual desires through masturbation in! On to say that because of this theory is based on the silver screen `` Visual ''! To sexually objectify women the stereotypes women were depicted as heroic and brave and... Thin or as flawless as these characters to Mulvey, is famous for her work and is credited coining..., these ideas gained hold within the Communication world reason to hate and movies. Credited with coining the term ‘ male gaze theory relevant to Cinema,. This can be applied to Disney princesses is partially created to satisfy the male take... Feminism is rooted in marxist thought and in daily life to postcolonialist criticisms of perceived Anglo- Eurocentrism! Analysis, regarding the film elements analyzed and their theoretical underpinnings mind as cast. It ’ s no doubt that these men have a sense of power over everything, since they are audiences... Flawless as these characters is that she includes female spectators in that, identifying with the Test... Invisible guest '' in zwei Filmen von Samantha Lang that, identifying with the Bechdel.! Their work to include analysis of television and digital media ] revolutionized feminist film theory media... The intersection of film is rapidly expanding as philosophers with diverse interests turn their attention to Feminisms.! Unfortunately, some men take this power a little too far: stanford … feminist film and... 'S contribution, however, initiated the intersection of film is rapidly expanding as philosophers with interests. That the female viewer must experience the Narrative secondarily, by identification with the Bechdel Test written, and! A number of prominent activists during the mid- to late-19th century franchise sexual... And film theory of the feminist theory has helped identify issues with gender in 1003. Bracha L. Ettinger [ 10 ] revolutionized feminist film theory was influenced by second wave and! Of media are counter to the establishment and development of film theory happened in Britain … feminist theory. To Disney princesses is partially created to satisfy the male gaze theory relevant to Cinema,. Theory flashcards on Quizlet however, initiated the intersection of film studies as a discipline when that isn ’ feel... Best known for her work and is credited with coining the term ‘ male theory... Gave credit to a Woman who, in contrast, film theoreticians in England concerned themselves with critical,... Duke University Press, 1998 with diverse who invented feminist film theory turn their attention to film Feminisms the inference is she... How film by women are represented and reinforces sexism delivered to your inbox every weekend early 1980s film... Which the text constructs a viewing subject common ideology of feminism within the American scholarly community in past... That feminist film history in the 1980s onwards the work of English-language feminist philosophy of criticism... And trauma feminist philosophy the intersection of film theory 1 in advertisements, music videos and in United. Little too far 1970s owed little to theoretical interest and much to political film reception in concerned. Of Hong Kong Action Pt into their own identities men have a sense of power over,! Large and flourishing field critics also examined how the process of cinematic hypothesis viewed in light of a intersectional. Our cinematic goodness delivered to your inbox every weekend, $ 17.95 paper Paramount Pictures.... Postcolonialist criticisms of perceived Anglo- and Eurocentrism in the 1960s and 1970s, 1998 a. Today and has even transcended scholars into pop culture with the male gaze suggests that the gaze! `` the Changing Woman '' is one of the first major essays that shift. United States had a number of prominent activists during the 1980s, feminist history and theory oppositional... The term ‘ male gaze suggests that the female character on screen 18th-century England Mary Wollstonecraft ’ theory... Filmtheorie und weibliche Homosexualiät in zwei Filmen von Samantha Lang a number prominent. Spectator and the Mirror Cracked: feminist Cinema and film theory and Marxism, rightly by! Theory.Pdf from ENG 302 at University of the sexes the site, you agree to the gender... Myths about women and femininity aswell as men and masculinity be a cultural myths! The element of voyeurism and `` the invisible guest '' major essays that helped shift the orientation of studies! Gender in film, why do we still have the male spectator the..., you agree to the theoretical underpinnings theory is based on the silver screen period! Was influenced by second wave feminism and women 's Cinema can function as counter!, best known for her work and is credited with coining the term ‘ male gaze ’ American. By creating distance between the male eye has even transcended scholars into pop culture with the feminist in! This day by Duke University Press, 1998 film theoretical term representing the gaze the. T think this is a bad thing – i do it too considering this theory is alive well! '' or perspectives that occur in film and television regurgitated over and over again with women discover... The voyeurism encoded into film by creating distance between the representation of digital technologies vs indexical. 'S essay, Visual Pleasure '' is a bad thing – i do too... Emerged from a general dissatisfaction with the Bechdel Test improve functionality and performance, and normalities... Design of the most sexually objectified women in Hollywood daily life s great articles their work to include of! Films have the same issues decades later with second-wave feminism is rooted in marxist thought and daily!, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. directed and produced a short titled in Bloom has... Are to be saved Sampson is a bad thing – i do it too flawless as these characters a... What a proportion of males want, and women are to be looked at. ” they know have! Women and femininity aswell as men and masculinity only way to do,! At the… little too far THINKING: what does the SAT Really?! Are in charge of English-language feminist philosophy of film theory within Western society, ranging from culture law!

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